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印尼烟雾污染再度危害邻国 难寻解决之道

行业资讯 / 2023-04-21 20:52

本文摘要:SINGAPORE — Savir Singh’s taxi rolled into downtown Singapore, taking an overpass that provides a stunning view of the popular hotels and tourist attractions around Marina Bay.新加坡——萨维尔·辛格(Savir Singh)的出租车驶入新加坡市中心,开到了一座立交桥。


SINGAPORE — Savir Singh’s taxi rolled into downtown Singapore, taking an overpass that provides a stunning view of the popular hotels and tourist attractions around Marina Bay.新加坡——萨维尔·辛格(Savir Singh)的出租车驶入新加坡市中心,开到了一座立交桥。那里景色雄伟,人们可以将滨海湾周边的热门酒店和旅游景点一览眼底。The only problem was that he could barely see them. Thick haze from forest fires set in neighboring Indonesia to clear land for agriculture has blanketed this island state for weeks, and has spread to Malaysia and southern Thailand.唯一的问题是,他完全看到那些美景。数周来,邻国印度尼西亚烧林开垦导致的浓厚烟雾笼罩着这个岛国,并已向马来西亚和泰国南部蔓延。

While many Singaporeans have sought refuge from the pollution in their homes, offices or shopping malls, Mr. Singh’s only haven is his mobile workplace, and a small bottle of eyedrops lying near his armrest.为了逃离污染,很多新加坡人待在家、办公室或商场里,但对辛格来说,出租车这个移动工作场所,和车座电梯旁边放着的一瓶滴眼液,是他仅有的避难。“Look at this,” he said, pointing to the partly obscured Singapore Flyer, a 540-foot-tall Ferris wheel. “I wish they had haze in Jakarta. Then the government there would do something about it.”“你想到,”他拿着有些模糊不清的新加坡摩天观景轮(Singapore Flyer)说道。“我期望雅加达也有雾霾。这样那里的政府就不会采行点行动了。

”新加坡摩天观景轮是一座低540英尺(约合165米)的摩天轮。Mr. Singh’s anger is part and parcel of a near-annual ritual: Fires set in Sumatra and the Indonesian side of Borneo blanket parts of Southeast Asia with smoke for weeks. While this has been going on for decades, an especially long dry season this year coupled with the effects of El Ni漀, threaten to make it the worst on record, scientists say.辛格的气愤是一项近乎年度仪式中必不可少的一部分:苏门答腊岛和婆罗洲印尼一侧熄灭的大火,让东南亚部分地区数周都处在浓烟的弥漫下。这种情况早已持续了数十年,但科学家称之为,今年的干季尤其漫长,再行再加厄尔尼诺现象的影响,可能会导致有记述以来最恶劣的后果。

Around the region, flights have been grounded, schools have been closed, and tens of thousands of people have sought medical treatment for respiratory problems, allergies, eczema and other ailments. The first night of an international sports competition, the FINA Swimming World Cup, set for last Saturday and hosted by Singapore, was canceled because of health concerns — as was a marathon in Kuala Lumpur, the Malaysia capital, set to be run the next morning.在该地区各地,航班停航,学校放假,数万人因排便疾病、过敏、湿疹和其他病症而就医。出于身体健康方面的考虑到,由新加坡主办、订于上周六举办的国际性体育赛事国际泳联世界杯短池游泳赛(FINA Swimming World Cup)第一天晚上的活动被中止。

此外,订于第二天早上在马来西亚大城吉隆坡举办的一场马拉松比赛也被中止。This year, there have been more vocal complaints from people affected in Singapore, Malaysia and even in Indonesia. There has also been high-profile sniping among government leaders, along with lawsuits, investigations and arrests of accused fire-starters — a familiar replay from 2013, when the region suffered its last major bout of haze.今年,在新加坡、马来西亚乃至印度尼西亚,受到影响的人们回应了更加反感的反感。政府领导人也展开了高调的批评,此外还经常出现了诉讼、调查和被控点燃的人遭被捕的情况。这一幕很眼熟,实质上是2013年,也就是该地区上一次颇受浓烟之厌时的情景重现。

After the skies cleared in 2013, the issue was once again forgotten — until last month, when the crisis erupted anew.在2013年,碧空再现后,这个问题就被抛掷之脑后,直到上个月危机再度愈演愈烈。The consensus this year is the same as it was then: The slash-and-burn techniques used in Indonesia’s palm oil industry are continuing unabated, and there is no magic bullet for ending the practice — or the haze it causes — in the short term.人们今年持的完全一致观点和那时一样:印尼棕榈油行业用于的刀耕火种作法维持减,且短期没灵丹妙药能完结这种作法,及其带给的浓烟。

Finding the long-term solution requires reducing agriculture in Indonesia’s carbon-rich peatland, curtailing slash-and-burn methods for clearing land and halting the conversions of forests to agricultural uses including palm oil, said Peter Holmgren, director general of the Center for International Forestry Research, a global scientific organization with its headquarters in Bogor, Indonesia.总部坐落于印尼茂物的全球性科学的组织国际林业研究中心(Center for International Forestry Research)总干事彼得·霍姆格伦(Peter Holmgren)回应,寻找长年解决办法必须增加印尼在碳含量非常丰富的泥炭地的农业栽种、容许砍烧这种垦荒方式,并暂停把林地变为农业用地和生产棕榈油的土地。“Fire is the most cost-effective way of clearing, which is why it is done,” he said.“放火烧是最省钱的垦荒方式,这就是个中缘由,”他说道。

Finding a permanent solution is daunting enough, but more than a month into the crisis, it seems that the region cannot curb the haze in the short term. Indonesia says that its military personnel are battling more than 1,000 forest-fire clusters, while Greenpeace says that figure does not include fires that started aboveground on peatland and are now burning out of control.寻找永久性的解决办法是很难,但危机已经常出现一月有余,而该地区或许无法在短期内掌控烟雾。印尼称之为,该国军事人员正在1000多个林火现场力战,但绿色和平(Greenpeace)回应,这个数字并未还包括泥炭地上自燃一起的,以及眼下火势失控的大火。

Up until Wednesday, Indonesia had rebuffed offers by neighbors to help it battle the blazes and had even admonished Singaporean and Malaysian leaders for daring to complain about the haze.在周三之前,印度尼西亚都还在坚决断然拒绝邻国帮助消防车的建议,甚至还指责新加坡和马来西亚领导人竟敢责怪浓烟。On Thursday, President Joko Widodo of Indonesia said his government had requested “help and assistance” the day before from Singapore and Malaysia, as well as Russia and Japan, in getting the peatland fires under control, according to a statement released by his cabinet secretariat.不过,印尼总统佐科·威多多(Joko Widodo)的内阁秘书处早已发表声明,说道总统周四回应,他领导的政府已于前一天催促新加坡和马来西亚,以及俄罗斯和日本,在掌控泥炭地上的火势上获取“协助和提供支援”。Mr. Joko said his government had specifically requested firefighting aircraft with a water-carrying capacity of 12 to 15 tons, saying that Indonesian planes currently fighting the blazes have carrying capacities of between two and three tons.佐科回应,以他派的政府具体催促取得载有水量在12到15吨之间的消防飞机的提供支援,称之为眼下参予消防车的印尼飞机的承载能力只有两到三吨。The aid request seemed to reflect a new seriousness from the Indonesian government.求救或许体现出有印尼政府对此事的新的推崇。

Late last month, the country’s outspoken vice president, Jusuf Kalla, repeated a statement he made earlier in the year in which he said that neighboring countries “should be grateful” to Indonesia for the clean air they have the other 11 months of the year.上月末,该国说出并不含蓄的副总统优素福·卡拉(Jusuf Kalla)反复了他今年早些时候的言论,声称对一年中其他11个月的好天气,邻国“应当感激”印度尼西亚。During the 2013 haze crisis, Agung Laksono, a senior Indonesian cabinet minister at the time, compared Singaporean leaders to a child having a temper tantrum after they complained about the impact that thick haze was having on tourism, which is a major contributor to Singapore’s economy.2013年烟雾危机期间,在新加坡领导人责怪浓烟影响了新加坡最重要的经济支柱旅游业后,当时兼任印尼内阁高级部长的阿贡·拉克索诺(Agung Laksono)把他们比作内乱不耐烦的小孩。


“It’s like a blame game,” said Bustar Maitar, global leader of the Indonesia Forest Campaign at Greenpeace.“看起来在相互推卸责任,”绿色和平印度尼西亚森林项目(Indonesia Forest Campaign)全球负责人布斯塔尔·努塔尔(Bustar Maitar)说道。“Of course all the fires are coming from Indonesia, but Singapore is enjoying the ‘deforestation economy’ of Indonesia as a financial center,” he said, “and there are many Malaysian palm oil companies operating in Indonesia, and Singaporean companies are there as well.”“当然,所有的大火都来自印尼,但作为金融中心的新加坡也享用着印尼的‘毁林经济’带给的益处,”他说道。

“而且马来西亚的很多棕榈油公司在印尼有业务,新加坡的公司也是。”Ultimately, Mr. Maitar said, the cycle will continue until rain forest deforestation is severely curtailed in Indonesia, where it remains rampant, and the Indonesian government bans the draining and clearing of peatland for agricultural use. Currently, Indonesian government policy allows peatland of less than about nine feet deep to be cleared.努塔尔回应,最后这个循环不会继续下去,直到印尼仍然很广泛的雨林采伐现象受到严苛容许,并且印尼政府禁令把泥炭地的水排腊垦荒以用作农业。

目前,印尼政府的政策容许垦殖严重不足九英尺浅的泥炭地。“That’s the only long-term way to stop haze,” he said.“这是唯一一个制止烟雾的长久之计,”他说道。Then there is the issue of who is responsible for the fires. As in 2013, this time around, there has been ample finger-pointing: Multinational palm oil companies, pulp and paper companies, the smaller plantations that sell to them, traditional farmers and even day laborers have all been blamed for starting the fires — and they in turn have blamed one another.然后就是谁该为大火负责管理的问题。

和2013年一样,这一次也经常出现了大量的相互指责:跨国棕榈油公司、纸浆和纸业公司、为它们供货的小种植园、传统为生者乃至零工都被指是大火的始作俑者,而它们之间又相互指责。On Wednesday, NTUC FairPrice, Singapore’s largest supermarket chain, released a statement saying it had pulled from its shelves toilet paper and other products sourced from Indonesia’s Asia Pulp Paper, one of the world’s largest pulp and paper companies.周三,新加坡仅次于的连锁餐馆职总平价餐馆(NTUC FairPrice)公布了一则声明,声称一并从印尼的亚洲浆纸业有限公司(Asia Pulp Paper,又称金光纸业,全称APP)订购的厕纸等产品下架。后者是全世界仅次于的浆纸业公司之一。

The supermarket said it had made the move “following notification from the Singapore Environment Council that it has instituted a temporary restriction on the use of the ‘Singapore Green Label’ certification for A.P.P. products,” the statement said.餐馆在声明中称之为,作出此举是“遵循新加坡环境理事会(Singapore Environment Council)的通报行事。其中回应,该机构开始实施一项临时规定,禁令对APP的产品展开‘新加坡绿色标志’证书”。On Monday, the council had released a statement saying that it took action after an Asia Pulp Paper subsidiary was “one of five companies named by the National Environment Agency (NEA) suspected to be contributing to the haze pollution.”周一,理事会曾发表声明称之为,APP的一家子公司“被新加坡国家环境局(National Environment Agency,全称NEA)列入因涉嫌生产烟雾污染的五家公司之一”后,促成它采行了行动。

Aida Greenbury, managing director of sustainability for Asia Pulp Paper, said in a statement on Thursday that the company was “firmly against” the intentional setting of forest fires and would disengage from any supplier proven guilty of illegally starting one.APP负责管理可持续发展的继续执行董事艾达·格林伯里(Aida Greenbury)在周四公开发表的声明中称之为,公司“极力赞成”蓄意放火烧林,并将与一切证明犯下非法放火罪行的供应商中止关系。“We understand why FairPrice feels the need to take urgent action and we feel the same urgency also in addressing this haze issue, but accuracy is just as important,” she said. “The fire situation is complex, and both the Singapore and Indonesia governments, and authorities are still investigating the situation.”“我们解读职总平价餐馆为什么实在有适当采行紧急行动,我们也感觉到了应付这一烟雾问题的紧迫性,但精确也某种程度最重要,”她说道。“火情简单,新加坡和印尼政府及权威机构仍在调查情况。

”Ang Peng Hwa, a university professor and founder of an antihaze activist group in Singapore, is promoting an American model for dealing with environmental negligence: suing those responsible, using a law passed by the Singaporean Parliament in 2014.在新加坡创办了一个反烟雾活动团体的大学教授汪炳华(Ang Peng Hwa)正在提倡美国处置环境疏失的模式:用新加坡议会2014年通过的一项法律控告责任人。Mr. Ang noted that under the Transboundary Haze Pollution Act, Singapore-listed companies involved in illegal land clearance in Indonesia can be sued in civil court for causing financial losses to businesses and individuals.汪炳华认为,按照《跨境阴霾污染法令》(Transboundary Haze Pollution Act)的规定,与印尼非法开垦活动有株连的新加坡上市公司,可以因为给企业和个人导致经济损失而被告上民事法庭。People have been coming forward to say that they have lost business because of the haze, Mr. Ang said. The prospective plaintiffs include a sporting events company and a sports training academy, though no lawsuits have yet been filed under the new law.汪炳华称之为,人们争相车站出来说道,因为烟雾,做生意受到了影响。有可能的原告还包括一家体育赛事公司和一家体育训练学校,不过仍未有人依据这部新的通过的法律驳回诉讼。


Possible injured parties include upscale hotels that suffer canceled bookings during haze periods and the organizers of the annual F1 Singapore Grand Prix. The F1 race was held on Sept. 20 despite concerns about air quality.有可能的受害者方还包括高档酒店和每年一届的F1新加坡大奖赛的的组织方。烟雾经常出现期间,酒店遭遇了预计中止的现象。

9月20日,尽管有人担忧空气质量,但F1大奖赛仍一律举办。The problem, Mr. Ang said, is that it is very difficult to determine liability because “there are layers that protect ultimate owners of companies.”汪炳华称之为,问题是很难界定责任,因为“有一层又一层的外壳维护公司的最后所有人”。

Yet, he said, the fact that some people have already come forward asking about financial compensation for haze through Singapore’s courts leads to an inescapable conclusion that should concern governments around the region. “People are getting more angry, more worked up.”但他回应,一些人早已车站出来,告知通过新加坡的法院取得经济赔偿金的有可能,而这一现象不会引向一个必定的结论,当令该地区的各国政府提防。“民众于是以显得越发气愤和兴奋。

”Whether that anger will lead to more lasting change is yet to be seen. Mr. Ang is not optimistic. “They burn for a period, everyone gets upset, and then people forget,” he said of the fires.这种气愤否不会带给更加长久的变化还有待仔细观察。不过汪炳华对结果并不悲观。“大火烧一段时间,于是群情激奋,过后又都忘了,”他说道。